Fractional antedating goal response hull

seat belt beeping sound)presenting an aversive stimulus to reduce probability of response In experiment, Skinner and Estes trained rats to lever press, and during extinction shocked one group of rates in order to reduce behavior.

At first, rats had low rate of responding, but when shock was not present, responded more than the no-shock group.

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in terms of blocking, one cue has more salience than the otherwe learn about things when we actively process them we process things actively only when we are surprised by them as conditioning proceeds, the CS and UCS become less surprising, are processes less, and we eventually learn less about them in terms of blocking, the occurance of a CS2 is not surprising, so there is no conditioningaka Garcia Effect--association of type of food with nausea often seen as example of CC, but: time delay between CS and US exceeds traditional CC intervals taste aversion can develop after only one exposure taste aversion are extremely resistant to extinctioncounterconditiong experimental neurosis--animals show pathological behaviors when stimuli become to difficult to discriminate between after discriminative learning Joseph Wolpe and treatment of phobias--systematic desensitiztion floodingclassical conditioning in AMERICA!!!

1) Deprivation--Skinner does not talk about motivation 2) Magazine training--buzz/click association made when food dispensed=contiguity 3) lever-pressing--over time, animal will lever press on its own due to reinforcement over and over again Respondent behavior is elicited by a known stimulus.

Mowrer came up with two-factor theory Mowrer used to help explain avoidance conditioning first factor is simple classical conditioning---light paired with shock=CS and UCS---he called signal learning second factor is solution learning (operant/instrumental learning)--drive to reduce is CONDITIONED FEAR onset of CS motivates a drive to reduce fear Mowrer's contribution to emotions associated with CS's decremental reinforcers reduce a drive, while incremental reinforcers produce or increase a drive moved away from Hullian theory by proposing that learning can also occur from drive induction rather than just reductionanimal presented with two stimuli and is reinforced for responding to one but not the other Hull and Spence attacked by cognitive psychologists Spence was like: 1) s Hr toward reinforced stimulus increases with each reinforcement 2) Inhibition builds up towards nonreinforced stimulus with each trial 3) habit strength and inhibition generalize to reinforced and nonreinforced stimuli 4) generalized habit strength gerneralized inhibition 5) generalized habit strength and inhibition combine algebraically 6) which stimulus is approached is determined by this algebraic summation 7) the stimulus with the great net habit strength will be responded to Spence's explanation of extinction Hull said that extinction occurs when K is 0 and Ir and s Ir become to dominant forces of behavior Spence: nonreinforcement causes primary frustration, which elicts responses that are incompatible with the learned response and compete with it with continued nonreinforcement.

animal learns to anticipate frustration--fractional anticipatory frustration reaction (rf) rf generalizes and occurs earlier and earlier in the chained behavior until it gets to the initial stimulus and rg-sg combination in the chain active interference of learned behavior caused by responses of frustration rf's act in similar way as rg-sg links-rf's give rise to sf's which stimulate behavior that stems from frustration (incompatible with reaching the goal box Frustration theory has 4 properties 1) primary frustration is energizing and temporarily increases the strength/magnitude/speed of behavior---frustration effect 2) the energizing reaction to nonreward has the same effect as a drive---frustration drive stimulus 3) conditioned anticipatory frustration: the response conditioned to environmental sitmuli associated with primary frustration--anticipatory frustration stimulus 4) and the internal feedback stimuli produced by that conditioned--rf-sf mechanism during extinction, animal faces nothing but frustration explains PRE conducted experiments to show how animals could control their internal environments autonomic/visceral conditioning used biofeedback to display to patients the information about their internal environments behavioral vs. rats conditioned to run maze with 32 pellet reinforcement at the end after conditioning, split into 2 groups, 32 to 2 pellets directly and 32 to 2 pellets by reducing amount by 2 a day behaviorists thought animals would start running slower, cognitives thought animals wouldn't perceive decline by 2 cognitive psychologists won!

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